The heart of Australia
Freemason John McDouall Stuart is considered to be Australia’s greatest inland explorer. Kevin L Gest uncovers his intrepid career
For a Freemason to have a small town named after him would be seen as an honour. That another Freemason should erase that name from the map, and replace it with the name of a lady, seems bizarre. Yet that is exactly what happened to a young Scotsman – John McDouall Stuart, an acclaimed explorer whom most Britons have never heard of, but whose feats are recognised by the Royal Geographical Society (RGS) in London.
As the British Empire expanded during the 19th century, so the new colonies, and the prospect of finding fame and fortune, attracted many British men. Some were Freemasons before they left, others joined on their return or were initiated in the territories that afforded them protection.
John McDouall Stuart was born in September 1815 at Dysart, Fife. Both his parents died when he was still in his early teens. His brothers and sisters were placed in the care of family members, but Stuart was sent to the Scottish Naval and Military Academy where he studied civil engineering. In 1834, when he was 20, Parliament passed the South Australian Colonisation Act with the objective of establishing a colony for free settlers – unlike New South Wales (Botany Bay) and Van Diemen’s Land (Tasmania), which had been penal colonies.
South Australian Freemasonry pre-dates the 1834 Act, however. A group of men had petitioned the United Grand Lodge of England for a lodge that would be based in the new colony. This lodge was warranted the South Australian Lodge of Friendship, No. 613, and in order to initiate new members, met twice in London before the first ships sailed.
Stuart arrived in the new colony in 1839. The fledgling town of Adelaide was just two years old, and had barely progressed beyond canvas tents and huts. His surveying knowledge was put to good use by the authorities and settlers, anxious to secure the boundaries of land allocated to them.
Soon after Stuart’s arrival, a new Surveyor-General, Captain Charles Sturt, was appointed to the colony, a man already acknowledged as an explorer. He had identified that land in South Australia was good for settlement and his report became the driving force behind the 1834 Act. Stuart came to the attention of the captain, who appointed him as draughtsman on an expedition to the centre of the continent.
Captain Sturt hoped to be the first European to plant a flag at Australia’s geographical centre.
He came close to achieving his objective but the harsh conditions experienced over nearly 18 months in unexplored territory forced a return to Adelaide.
Both men had become ill with scurvy and it took nearly a year for the Scotsman to recover. His health broken, Sturt returned to England but nevertheless commended Stuart for the quality of the maps he had produced. Over the next few years Stuart threw himself into survey work and searching for minerals.
In 1858 Stuart set out on a short expedition. He mapped some 40,000 square miles of previously uncharted territory and was granted 1,000 square miles of it. Two further expeditions followed, pushing further north each time. On the third one he reached what he calculated to be the centre of Australia, in April 1860. Nearby is a hill he named Mount Sturt, where he planted a flag in the captain’s honour. It was later renamed Central Mount Stuart.
Stuart and his companions pressed on for a further 300 miles before being forced back to Adelaide. In recognition, the proceedings of the RGS of 27 May 1861 state: ‘…and the Patron’s Gold Medal to the Duke of Newcastle, on behalf of John McDouall Stuart, for his explorations in the interior of Australia…’
The South Australian Government offered a reward of £2,000 for the first man to cross the country from south to north. Stuart departed with a group in January 1861, but events conspired against them and the party was forced to return to Adelaide.
‘During one expedition Stuart claimed he recognised a masonic greeting when he encountered a party of Aboriginal people.’
In October 1861 Stuart set out again. Nine months later he arrived at a beach on the Indian Ocean, just east of where Darwin now stands. He carved his initials in a tree as a record of his arrival. He and his companions had been the first Europeans to cross the continent, south to north, a distance of some 1,900 miles. His health in tatters, and nearly blind, he arrived back in Adelaide in December 1862.
Just before he embarked on these expeditions, Stuart was initiated into Lodge of Truth, No. 933, English Constitution. During one of his expeditions Stuart claimed he recognised a masonic greeting when he encountered a party of Aboriginal people in northern Australia. In one of his journals, he noted:
‘I endeavoured to get information as to the next water, but we could not understand each other … Having conferred with his sons, he turned around and surprised me by giving one of the masonic signs. … I looked at him steadily. He repeated it … I then returned it, which seemed to please him very much, the old man patting me on the shoulder and stroking down my beard…’
The effect of the expeditions had damaged Stuart’s health and in March 1864 he returned to England.
In November of that year he presented a paper to the RGS. The proceedings note: ‘The President recalled the attention of the Society to the great achievements of Mr McDouall Stuart … the only man who had traversed Australia, from south to north, a feat for which he had received the highest honour in the power of the Society to confer.’
When the tree into which Stuart had carved his initials was rediscovered, a section was fashioned into a set of masonic gavels. These, along with his Grand Lodge Certificate and Master Mason apron, are on display in the museum of the Grand Lodge of South Australia and Northern Territory, Adelaide.
From Stuart’s expeditions an overland route for a telegraph line was identified. A permanent waterhole called Alice Springs became the site for a repeater station, around which a town formed called Stuart. In 1933 Governor-General Sir Isaac Isaacs, who was also a Freemason, changed the name of the settlement and it became a town called Alice Springs. However, Stuart Highway remains, and closely follows the same route explored by the Scotsman.
John McDouall Stuart died in June 1866 at the age of 50 and is buried in Kensal Green cemetery, London. He is now regarded as Australia’s greatest inland explorer.
The author would like to acknowledge with gratitude the assistance of the Grand Lodge of South Australia and Northern Territory in substantiating elements of this article
Just like moving home?
Can personal experience of selling a house equip people to deal with what selling a masonic centre involves? Grand Superintendent of Works John Pagella notes the similarities and differences
Moving house is said to be one of the most stressful experiences in life. From the large sums of money involved through to unfamiliar legal issues, the process can be highly traumatic. The same could be said of the challenges that masonic halls and centres face should an existing building no longer serve the needs of Freemasonry today.
Successfully relocating is a subject all of its own, but the starting point is realising the full value of the existing building. Masonic halls and centres are commercial buildings and their use is regulated by planning laws. You might think the laws and regulations are no different from those affecting residential property, but while the underlying principles are the same this is not the case once you look at the detail.
In relation to commercial buildings, planning use rights frequently embrace a range of business types within the same planning use category – planning is not directed towards preserving individual businesses or protecting their value.
A shop can fail in the hands of one business, but succeed in the hands of another with a different business model. As a result, the market value of a commercial building can be quite different from its value to the owner or occupier. Understanding this is particularly important where a business has run into financial difficulty, and managing a masonic centre is running a business. It therefore may not always be the building that explains the problem.
The next consideration is whether the building or its site has a higher value to a purchaser contemplating a change of use with or without refurbishment, adaptation or redevelopment.
Spotting this takes both knowledge and experience, and missing it can lead to underselling. The numbers can be substantial.
‘You might think the laws and regulations are no different from those affecting residential property, but this is not the case once you look at the detail.’
Recognising that a building or site has development potential is of fundamental importance. However, it is only the first step in a complex process that can all too easily lead to frustration and regret if experienced developers and their advisers are allowed to dictate the agenda. Is an option sensible, or should a conditional contract be considered? If a conditional contract is the right approach, should the vendor have an element of control over the timescale and planning agenda? If the answer to that question is yes, how can this be best achieved?
Proceed with caution
In some cases the answer could be for the vendor to explore the planning potential and obtain an outline or detailed permission before selling. Obvious though that might seem, it may not always be appropriate if, for example, there are a number of development options. I pose questions rather than offer answers for the reason that each case will be different, and what works for one may be quite wrong for another.
As to the question of whether experience of house sales can equip someone to manage commercial property transactions, I would suggest that proceeding without any guidance would be most unwise. Informed, experienced and independent advice from qualified advisers is essential. It will cost money, but provided you have the right adviser it will be money well spent.
Welsh vote for Tenovus
Clare Gallie, director of income generation for Tenovus Cancer Care, said: ‘With this magnificent support from the masonic community, we’ll be able to fund this work in one of the most promising new areas of cancer research – immunotherapy.’ The project will be overseen by Professor Bernhard Moser from the Cardiff University School of Medicine.
Hundreds of Freemasons from the area voted for Tenovus to receive the grant. South Wales Provincial Grand Master Gareth Jones said: ‘We were delighted to be able to demonstrate support for our local research charity.’
Last night at the Rochdale Proms
Lodge of Harmony, No. 298, in East Lancashire hosted a Last Night of the Proms-style concert in Rochdale and raised more than £1,500 for St Aidan’s Church, Wardle Academy Youth Brass Band and the East Lancashire Masonic Charity. The event, held at St Aidan’s, featured performances by the Wardle Academy band, soloist Freda Farnworth and the Rochdale Retirement Choir.
Devonshire proud to help
Established in 1944, ABF The Soldiers’ Charity last year gave over 5,000 grants and funded another 72 charities to provide vital services to soldiers in need, giving veterans and their families the support they need through times of crisis.
The Devon Soldiers’ Charity Fundraising Committee is equally active, raising more than £63,000 last year and giving grants of over £70,000 to assist 109 individuals in need of help.
When presenting the cheques, Ian Kingsbury, Provincial Grand Master of Devonshire, said: ‘To be able to support the soldiers who have served the citizens of this country so selflessly is very humbling.’
Upon receiving the cheques Col Robert Jordan MBE said: ‘We are deeply grateful for this generous donation.’
Devonshire’s Philammon Lodge, No. 3226, and Pelican Lodge, No. 7878, raised £10,800 at a charity sportsman dinner in memory of two of their brethren, one from each lodge, who died of pancreatic cancer. As part of the Santander Foundation, the bank’s Plymouth branch match-funded the total being donated to three charities – Pancreatic Cancer UK, the Mustard Tree Macmillan Centre, and the Wooden Spoon charity for disadvantaged and disabled children.
Valued support for palliative care
The Freemasons’ Grand Charity continued to support hospices with a total donation of £600,000 in 2015. Across England and Wales, 245 adult and children’s hospices have received funding to provide essential services to those affected by terminal or life-limiting illness.
Among those to receive assistance are Dorothy House Hospice in Wiltshire, Hope House Children’s Hospice in Shropshire, and the Marie Curie Cardiff and the Vale Hospice.
Chief Executive of The Freemasons’ Grand Charity Laura Chapman said: ‘Every year, Freemasons and their families work together to raise funds to ensure the incredible work of hospices can continue. The dedicated care they provide is highly valued by local communities and Freemasons believe strongly in supporting this.’
Fundraising coordinator Tania Wood at Dove Wood Hospice, another Grand Charity funding beneficiary, said: ‘Your continued support really does help us to make a positive difference to the lives of local people in palliative care. With your help we’re able to plan ahead effectively, ensuring that our patients receive both expert medical care and emotional support.’
Cambridge hospice challenge
Lynn Morgan, Arthur Rank Hospice Charity CEO, went to a special event hosted by Cambridgeshire Freemasons at Ely Cathedral to mark the retirement of Rodney Wolverson after 10 years as Provincial Grand Master. During the evening, Rodney presented a cheque for £100,000 towards the Arthur Rank Hospice Building Appeal.
This was one of three substantial donations made over the past 18 months since Rodney challenged the Province to raise a six-figure sum for the hospice appeal. A donation of £100,000 was made last June, with another cheque for £15,000 presented during the Act of Dedication for the hospice.
Highest French honour
Two Freemasons, Ray Worrall, a resident at RMBI care home Connaught Court in York, and Bill Doherty from Northumberland, have both been awarded the Chevalier de la Légion d’Honneur – the highest decoration in France – by the French Consul.
Ray’s book Escape from France tells the story of how his Lancaster bomber was shot down over occupied France in 1944. Ray was hidden in the Fréteval forest by the French Resistance, who helped him return to England. Bill received the award for helping to liberate the first French village, Ranville, during the Normandy D-Day landings.
Sharing in Somerset
A grants presentation evening held in Taunton Masonic Hall saw Somerset Freemasons presenting grants of £40,671 in the presence of local charities and civic leaders. Among others, a donation of £8,400 was given by Provincial Grand Stewards Lodge, No. 9189, for the purchase of special wound pumps, and £14,135 by the Masonic Bowling Association for vein viewers for the Haematology, Oncology and Palliative Care department of Musgrove Park Hospital.
Mentions were made of planned future donations of nearly £40,000 from the Somerset Masonic Flood Recovery Fund, following the appalling devastation caused by the flooding on the Somerset Levels during the winter of 2013-14.